A Study of Snacks and Satiety (feeling fed)

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Have questions? Please contact the study coordinator Ellen Bonnel at elbonnel@UCDAVIS.EDU or call (530) 752-4184
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  1. *1. What is your weight?
    In pounds (lbs.)
  2. *2. What is your height?
    Feet and inches (ex. 5'3")
  3. *3. Are you currently taking any hormonal birth control?
    Including oral contraceptive, hormonal IUDs or implants.
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"Volunteer for research at UC Davis and contribute to discoveries that may improve health care for you, your family, and your community!"
Age: 18 to 45 years old
Healthy Volunteers: Yes
Keywords: almonds, hunger, satiety, overweight, obesity
Type: Other study
80 Participants
There are still many questions about how we control our appetite and overall food intake. One theory is that fluctuations in blood glucose tell the brain to eat or stop eating. Another theory suggests that certain amino acids in proteins we eat provide ‘stop’ and ‘go’ signals for eating.

Many nutrition studies point to high protein or high carbohydrate foods to influence appetite. However, it is not clear if eating snacks, high or low in protein or carbohydrate, can actually affect appetite.

We are doing this study to determine if snacks affect appetite and overall food intake. The snacks being used in this study are either almonds (higher in proteins) or a cereal blend (higher in carbohydrates).
This study requires

Once per week you will come in to the study site to pick up your snacks for the week. You will return the empty snack packaging from the previous week, and submit your snack log. The snack log will have space for writing in how much of the snack you ate and at what time. You can also write in any comments or events you experienced related to eating the snacks. We will also review your menstrual cycle log. Also at these visits we will collect weight and body composition measurements using the InBody 770.

Test days. These 10-hour test days will be scheduled once at the start of the 4-week snack period and once more during the last week of the study. The procedures included on test days are described below:

· Metabolic rate: This measure will be taken four times during each test day. You will rest in a semi-reclined position in a comfortable chair. A facemask will be secured over your mouth and nose and its design allows you to breathe in the air in the room while trapping the air that you breathe out.

Your expired breath will be analyzed for oxygen and carbon dioxide, which allows us to determine how many calories you burn each minute. The metabolic cart operator will continue to collected your expired breath for about 15-20 minutes. This test will be repeated 3 more times each following a meal or snack consumption.

· Blood draw: We will take a fasting blood sample. A trained phlebotomist or nurse will collect the blood from a vein in your arm. The blood will be used for a clinical chemistry blood panel, a complete blood count, and hormones known to influence blood glucose levels and appetite. Before the lunch meal, a catheter will be placed in your arm vein so the remaining nine blood samples can be obtained on a specific schedule, before and after eating, with repeated analyses of blood glucose and hormones known to influence blood glucose levels and appetite. The total amount of blood collected on each test day will not exceed 250 mL (about 1 cup).

· Meals and Snacks: During the test day, you will be provided a breakfast meal, mid-morning snack, lunch meal, mid-afternoon snack. We ask that you eat these meals and snacks within 15 minutes. After all the procedures are completed, you will be served a dinner meal that you are free to choose how much of the foods to eat.

· Body weight and composition: We will use the InBody 770, described above, to measure your weight and body composition. We will also measure your waist and hip circumference using a measuring tape.

· Assessment of liver health: We will use an instrument called the Fibroscan which is a short 10- minute scan of your right abdomen using ultrasound type scanner. For this procedure you will lie on the bed on your back with your right arm extended above your head, resting on the bed. A series of painless pulses will be applied by the Fibroscan probe.

· Recording feelings of hunger and fullness: Throughout the day, we will ask you to respond to questions such as “how hungry do you feel right now?” or “how full do you feel right now?” using a line scale anchored on the left end as 0=not at all and on the right end as 100=extremely. These questions will be presented to you using an electronic device such as a tablet or personal digital assistant and will take less than one minute to answer each time. This information will be collected frequently immediately before and after food intake, and at 30 minute intervals during the test day. The process takes less than 1 minute each time. Right after each meal and snack we will also ask you to respond to questions regarding how satisfied you were with the meal and how much you liked it, also using a line scale.

· Eating behavior Questionnaires: We will ask that you fill out a food craving inventory in the morning and a satiety questionnaire in the afternoon. These questionnaires that should take 10-15 minutes to complete.

· Leeds Food Choice Protocol: Once in the morning before breakfast and once in the afternoon following lunch, we will ask you to take a computer-based test that will be used to gauge how much you like and want different types of foods. In one test, a series of familiar food pictures will be presented to you, and you will be asked to respond to a question such as, “how much do you like the taste of this food?” using a line scale anchored on the left end as 0=not at all and on the right end as 100=extremely. In another part of the test, you will be presented with 2 images of foods and it will ask you to choose which food you most want to eat. This procedure should take you approximately 10 minutes to complete each time.

Who can participate

Inclusion criteria:

  • Pre-menopausal
  • Body Mass Index 25 - 39.9 kg/m2

Exclusion criteria:

  • Women who are post-menopausal or peri-menopausal
  • BMI < 25 or > 40 kg/m2
  • Allergies to tree nuts
  • Using any hormonal contraception including oral contraceptive, contraceptive patch, contraceptive ring, contraceptive injection (e.g. Depo-Provera), or contraceptive implant (e.g. Nexplanon/Implanon)
  • Menstrual cycle lengths < 25 days or > 45 days, or have amenorrhea, eumenorrhea, or polymenorrhea.
  • Pregnant or nursing within the last 6 months, or plan to become pregnant during the trial
  • Medical diagnoses of chronic diseases including cardiovascular or pulmonary diseases, renal disease, cancer, type 1 or type 2 diabetes mellitus, thyroid disease requiring medication, inflammatory bowel disease, irritable bowel disease, or those with recent major surgeries
  • current medical diagnosis of polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS).
Benefits and risks of participating

We cannot promise any benefits to you as a result of taking part in this research study.


The study doctor will discuss the risks associated with taking part in this research study.
We will pay you up to $240.00 for participating in this study. Payment will be provided at the end of the study visit in the form of a check.
Study duration and period
You will be asked to come to the study site 9 times over the course of ~8-10 weeks (including the in-person screening visit). Four of these visits will last about 30 minutes
Recruitment period
From April 25, 2019
UC Davis Western Human Nutrition Research Center (WHNRC)
1 Shields Avenue
Davis, CA 95616
Research Topic
  • Eating Behavior
  • Overweight
  • Obesity

Have any questions or want to learn more? Leave your contact details below and the research team will reach out to you.


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