|Age:||18 to 45 years old|
|Keywords:||almonds, hunger, satiety, overweight, obesity|
Once per week you will come in to the study site to pick up your snacks for the week. You will return the empty snack packaging from the previous week, and submit your snack log. The snack log will have space for writing in how much of the snack you ate and at what time. You can also write in any comments or events you experienced related to eating the snacks. We will also review your menstrual cycle log. Also at these visits we will collect weight and body composition measurements using the InBody 770.
Test days. These 10-hour test days will be scheduled once at the start of the 4-week snack period and once more during the last week of the study. The procedures included on test days are described below:
· Metabolic rate: This measure will be taken four times during each test day. You will rest in a semi-reclined position in a comfortable chair. A facemask will be secured over your mouth and nose and its design allows you to breathe in the air in the room while trapping the air that you breathe out.
Your expired breath will be analyzed for oxygen and carbon dioxide, which allows us to determine how many calories you burn each minute. The metabolic cart operator will continue to collected your expired breath for about 15-20 minutes. This test will be repeated 3 more times each following a meal or snack consumption.
· Blood draw: We will take a fasting blood sample. A trained phlebotomist or nurse will collect the blood from a vein in your arm. The blood will be used for a clinical chemistry blood panel, a complete blood count, and hormones known to influence blood glucose levels and appetite. Before the lunch meal, a catheter will be placed in your arm vein so the remaining nine blood samples can be obtained on a specific schedule, before and after eating, with repeated analyses of blood glucose and hormones known to influence blood glucose levels and appetite. The total amount of blood collected on each test day will not exceed 250 mL (about 1 cup).
· Meals and Snacks: During the test day, you will be provided a breakfast meal, mid-morning snack, lunch meal, mid-afternoon snack. We ask that you eat these meals and snacks within 15 minutes. After all the procedures are completed, you will be served a dinner meal that you are free to choose how much of the foods to eat.
· Body weight and composition: We will use the InBody 770, described above, to measure your weight and body composition. We will also measure your waist and hip circumference using a measuring tape.
· Assessment of liver health: We will use an instrument called the Fibroscan which is a short 10- minute scan of your right abdomen using ultrasound type scanner. For this procedure you will lie on the bed on your back with your right arm extended above your head, resting on the bed. A series of painless pulses will be applied by the Fibroscan probe.
· Recording feelings of hunger and fullness: Throughout the day, we will ask you to respond to questions such as “how hungry do you feel right now?” or “how full do you feel right now?” using a line scale anchored on the left end as 0=not at all and on the right end as 100=extremely. These questions will be presented to you using an electronic device such as a tablet or personal digital assistant and will take less than one minute to answer each time. This information will be collected frequently immediately before and after food intake, and at 30 minute intervals during the test day. The process takes less than 1 minute each time. Right after each meal and snack we will also ask you to respond to questions regarding how satisfied you were with the meal and how much you liked it, also using a line scale.
· Eating behavior Questionnaires: We will ask that you fill out a food craving inventory in the morning and a satiety questionnaire in the afternoon. These questionnaires that should take 10-15 minutes to complete.
· Leeds Food Choice Protocol: Once in the morning before breakfast and once in the afternoon following lunch, we will ask you to take a computer-based test that will be used to gauge how much you like and want different types of foods. In one test, a series of familiar food pictures will be presented to you, and you will be asked to respond to a question such as, “how much do you like the taste of this food?” using a line scale anchored on the left end as 0=not at all and on the right end as 100=extremely. In another part of the test, you will be presented with 2 images of foods and it will ask you to choose which food you most want to eat. This procedure should take you approximately 10 minutes to complete each time.
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