A Study of the Experimental Combination of Chemotherapy, Bevacizumab, and/or Atezolizumab For Metastatic Colorectal Cancer

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"Volunteer for research at UC Davis and contribute to discoveries that may improve health care for you, your family, and your community!"
Age: 18 years or older
Gender:
Any
Healthy Volunteers: No
Keywords: colon cancer, colorectal cancer, metastatic colon cancer, metastatic colorectal cancer
Type: Drug study, Phase 3
Target:
4 Participants
Investigator:
Description
The purpose of this study is to learn the benefits of adding an experimental drug, atezolizumab (MPDL3280A), to a usual treatment. It will be compared to giving the experimental drug alone and giving the usual treatment alone.

The usual treatment in this study is the chemotherapy drugs, 5-flouorouracil (5-FU), leucovorin, and oxaliplatin. This combination is called FOLFOX.

In addition to FOLFOX, bevacizumab will be given. Bevacizumab is in a group of drugs called biologic therapy. FOLFOX and bevacizumab are approved by the FDA to treat metastatic CRC.

To be better than FOLFOX, the experimental treatment should keep your cancer from growing for more than 7 months.

Another purpose of this study is to test the good and bad effects of atezolizumab when added to the usual treatment and when given alone. Atezolizumab may keep your cancer from growing but it can also cause side effects. Atezolizumab is FDA-approved for treating metastatic cancers of the bladder and lung. Atezolizumab is considered experimental in this study because it is not approved to treat metastatic CRC.

This study has three study groups that will be chosen randomly:
• Group 1 will get FOLFOX and bevacizumab.
• Group 2 will get atezolizumab alone.
• Group 3 will receive FOLFOX and bevacizumab plus atezolizumab.
This study requires

The study team will make sure you qualify to take part in the study. Qualified participants will receive detailed information about the study. This may include a list of study-related tests and procedures.

Who can participate

Inclusion criteria:

  • The patient must have signed and dated an Institutional Review Board (IRB)-approved consent form that conforms to federal and institutional guidelines
  • Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group (ECOG) performance status of 0, 1 or 2
  • Diagnosis of metastatic adenocarcinoma of colon or rectum without previous chemotherapy or any other systemic therapy for metastatic colorectal cancer
  • Tumor determined to be mismatch-repair deficient (dMMR) by Clinical Laboratory Improvement Act (CLIA)-certified immunohistochemical (IHC) assay with a panel of all four IHC markers, including MLH1, MSH2, PMS2, and MSH6; Note: microsatellite instability high (MSI-H) diagnosed by microsatellite instability (MSI) testing (either Bethesda markers or Pentaplex panel) or by next-generation sequencing (NGS) is not eligible unless dMMR is confirmed by CLIA-certified immunohistochemical (IHC) assay with a panel of all four IHC markers including MLH1, MSH2, PMS2 and MSH6
  • An adequate amount of archived tumor tissue, either from primary colorectal cancer site or metastatic lesions, for central confirmation of dMMR status:
  • Either whole or part of the formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) block containing tumor tissue; or
  • At least 9 unstained slides containing tumor sections
  • Documentation by positron emission tomography(PET)/computed tomography (CT) scan, CT scan, or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) that the patient has untreated measurable metastatic disease per RECIST 1.1
  • No immediate need for surgical intervention for the primary tumor or palliative diversion/bypass
  • Absolute neutrophil count (ANC) must be >= 1500/mm^3 (obtained within 28 days prior randomization)
  • Platelet count must be >= 100,000/mm^3 (obtained within 28 days prior randomization)
  • Hemoglobin must be >= 8 g/dL (obtained within 28 days prior randomization)
  • Total bilirubin must be =< 1.5 x ULN (upper limit of normal) for the lab unless the patient has a bilirubin elevation > 1.5 x ULN to 3 x ULN due to Gilbert's disease or similar syndrome involving slow conjugation of bilirubin (obtained within 28 days prior randomization); and
  • Alkaline phosphatase must be =< 2.5 x ULN for the lab with the following exception: patients with documented liver metastases or bone involvement - alkaline phosphatase must be =< 5 x ULN (obtained within 28 days prior randomization); and
  • Aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) must be =< 3 x ULN for the lab with the following exception: for patients with documented liver metastases, AST and ALT must be =< 5 x ULN (obtained within 28 days prior randomization)
  • Serum creatinine =< 1.5 x ULN for the lab or measured or calculated creatinine clearance >= 30 mL/min (obtained within 28 days prior randomization)
  • A urine sample tested for proteinuria by the dipstick method must indicate 0 -1+ protein; if dipstick reading is >= 2+, a 24-hour urine specimen must demonstrate < 1.0 g of protein per 24 hours
  • International normalized ratio of prothrombin time (INR) and prothrombin time (PT) must be =< 1.5 x ULN for the lab within 28 days before randomization; patients who are therapeutically treated with an agent such as warfarin may participate if they are on a stable dose and no underlying abnormality in coagulation parameters exists per medical history
  • Pregnancy test done within 14 days prior randomization must be negative (for women of childbearing potential only); pregnancy testing should be performed according to institutional standards; should a woman become pregnant or suspect she is pregnant while she or her partner is participating in this study, she should inform her treating physician immediately
  • Women of child-bearing potential must agree to use adequate contraception (hormonal or barrier method of birth control; abstinence) prior to study entry, for the duration of study participation, and for 5 months (150 days) after the last dose of atezolizumab, 6 months after the last dose of bevacizumab, and 6 months after the last dose of mFOLFOX6; men with female partners of child-bearing potential must agree to use adequate contraception prior to the study, for the duration of study participation, and for 6 months after the last dose of bevacizumab and 6 months after the last dose of mFOLFOX6

Exclusion criteria:

  • Patients with central nervous system (CNS) metastases are excluded, with the following exceptions:
  • Patients with asymptomatic untreated CNS metastases may be enrolled, provided all eligibility criteria are met, as well as the following:
  • Evaluable or measurable disease outside the CNS
  • No metastases to brain stem, midbrain, pons, medulla, cerebellum, or within 10 mm of the optic apparatus (optic nerves and chiasm)
  • No history of intracranial hemorrhage or spinal cord hemorrhage
  • No ongoing requirement for dexamethasone for CNS disease; patients on a stable dose of anticonvulsants are permitted.
  • No neurosurgical resection or brain biopsy within 28 days prior to randomization
  • Patients with asymptomatic treated CNS metastases may be enrolled, provided all eligibility criteria are met, as well as the following:
  • Radiographic demonstration of improvement upon the completion of CNS-directed therapy and no evidence of interim progression between the completion of CNS-directed therapy and the screening radiographic study
  • No stereotactic radiation or whole-brain radiation within 28 days prior to randomization
  • Screening CNS radiographic study >= 28 days from completion of radiotherapy and >= 14 days from discontinuation of corticosteroids
  • Known hypersensitivity to Chinese hamster ovary cell products or other recombinant human antibodies, fluoropyrimidines, folic acid derivatives or oxaliplatin
  • Uncontrolled high blood pressure defined as systolic blood pressure (BP) > 150 mmHg or diastolic BP 90 mmHg with or without anti-hypertensive medication; patients with initial BP elevations are eligible if initiation or adjustment of BP medication lowers pressure to meet entry criteria
  • Any of the following cardiac conditions:
  • Documented New York Heart Association (NYHA) class III or IV congestive heart failure
  • Myocardial infarction within 6 months prior to randomization
  • Unstable angina within 6 months prior to randomization
  • Symptomatic arrhythmia
  • Serious or non-healing wound, skin ulcer, or bone fracture
  • History of transient ischemic attack (TIA), cerebrovascular accident (CVA), gastrointestinal (GI) perforation or arterial thrombotic event within 6 months prior to randomization or symptomatic peripheral ischemia
  • Other malignancies are excluded unless the patient has completed therapy for the malignancy >= 12 months prior to randomization and is considered disease-free; patients with the following cancers are eligible if diagnosed and treated within the past 12 months: in situ carcinomas or basal cell and squamous cell carcinoma of the skin
  • Known DPD (dihydro pyrimidine dehydrogenase) deficiency
  • Symptomatic peripheral sensory neuropathy >= grade 2 (Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events [CTCAE] version [v] 5.0) in patients with no prior oxaliplatin therapy
  • Prior treatment with oxaliplatin chemotherapy within 6 months prior to randomization
  • Prior treatment with anti-PD-1, or anti-PD-L1 therapeutic antibody or pathway-targeting agents; patients who have received prior treatment with anti-CTLA-4 may be enrolled provided the following requirements are met:
  • Minimum of 12 weeks from the first dose of anti-CTLA-4 and > 6 weeks from the last dose to randomization
  • No history of severe immune-related adverse effects (CTCAE Grade 3 and 4) from anti-CTLA-4
  • Patients who have had chemotherapy or radiotherapy within 4 weeks (6 weeks for nitrosoureas or mitomycin C) prior to entering the study or those who have not recovered from adverse events (other than alopecia) due to agents administered more than 4 weeks earlier are excluded; however, the following therapies are allowed:
  • Hormone-replacement therapy or oral contraception
  • Herbal therapy > 7 days prior to randomization (herbal therapy intended as anticancer therapy must be discontinued at least 1 week prior to randomization)
  • Palliative radiotherapy for bone metastases > 14 days prior to randomization
  • Treatment with systemic immunostimulatory medications (including, but not limited to interferon [IFN]-alpha or interleukin [IL]-2 within 42 days prior to randomization
  • Treatment with systemic immunosuppressive medications (including, but not limited to, prednisone, cyclophosphamide, azathioprine, methotrexate, thalidomide, and anti-tumor necrosis factor [anti-TNF] agents) within 14 days prior to randomization; however,
  • Patients who have received acute, low dose, systemic immunosuppressant medications (e.g., a one-time dose of dexamethasone for nausea; or chronic daily treatment with corticosteroids with a dose of =< 10 mg/day methylprednisolone equivalent) may be enrolled
  • The use of inhaled corticosteroids and mineralocorticoids (e.g., fludrocortisone) for patients with orthostatic hypotension or adrenocortical insufficiency is allowed
  • Patients taking bisphosphonate therapy for symptomatic hypercalcemia; use of bisphosphonate therapy for other reasons (e.g., bone metastasis or osteoporosis) is allowed
  • Patients requiring treatment with a receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa-B ligand (RANKL) inhibitor (e.g., denosumab) who cannot discontinue it before treatment with atezolizumab
  • Treatment with any other investigational agent within 4 weeks prior to randomization
  • Known clinically significant liver disease, including active viral, alcoholic, or other hepatitis; cirrhosis; fatty liver; and inherited liver disease; however,
  • Patients with past or resolved hepatitis B infection (defined as having a negative hepatitis B surface antigen [HBsAg] test and a positive anti-HBc [antibody to hepatitis B core antigen] antibody test) are eligible
  • Patients positive for hepatitis C virus (HCV) antibody are eligible only if polymerase chain reaction (PCR) is negative for HCV ribonucleic acid (RNA)
  • History or risk of autoimmune disease, including, but not limited to, systemic lupus erythematosus, rheumatoid arthritis, inflammatory bowel disease, vascular thrombosis associated with antiphospholipid syndrome, Wegener's granulomatosis, Sjogren's syndrome, Bell's palsy, Guillain-Barre syndrome, multiple sclerosis, autoimmune thyroid disease, vasculitis, or glomerulonephritis; however,
  • Patients with a history of autoimmune hypothyroidism on a stable dose of thyroid replacement hormone may be eligible
  • Patients with controlled type 1 diabetes mellitus on a stable insulin regimen may be eligible
  • Patients with eczema, psoriasis, lichen simplex chronicus or vitiligo with dermatologic manifestations only (e.g., patients with psoriatic arthritis would be excluded) are permitted provided that they meet the following conditions:
  • Patients with psoriasis must have a baseline ophthalmologic exam to rule out ocular manifestations
  • Rash must cover less than 10% of body surface area (BSA)
  • Disease is well controlled at baseline and only requiring low potency topical steroids (e.g., hydrocortisone 2.5%, hydrocortisone butyrate 0.1%, fluocinolone 0.01%, desonide 0.05%, alclometasone dipropionate 0.05%)
  • No acute exacerbations of underlying condition within the last 12 months (not requiring psoralen plus ultraviolet A radiation [PUVA], methotrexate, retinoids, biologic agents, oral calcineurin inhibitors; high potency or oral steroids)
  • History of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis, pneumonitis (including drug induced), organizing pneumonia (i.e., bronchiolitis obliterans, cryptogenic organizing pneumonia, etc.), or evidence of active pneumonitis on screening chest computed tomography (CT) scan; history of radiation pneumonitis in the radiation field (fibrosis) is permitted
  • History of severe allergic, anaphylactic, or other hypersensitivity reactions to chimeric or humanized antibodies or fusion proteins
  • Patients with known active tuberculosis (TB) are excluded
  • Severe infections within 28 days prior to randomization, including but not limited to, hospitalization for complications of infection, bacteremia, or severe pneumonia
  • Signs or symptoms of infection within 14 days prior to randomization
  • Received oral or intravenous (IV) antibiotics within 14 days prior to randomization; patients receiving prophylactic antibiotics (e.g., for prevention of a urinary tract infection or chronic obstructive pulmonary disease) are eligible
  • Major surgical procedure, open biopsy, or significant traumatic injury within 28 days prior to randomization or anticipation of need for a major surgical procedure during the course of the study
  • Administration of a live, attenuated vaccine within 28 days prior to randomization or anticipation that such a live, attenuated vaccine will be required during the study and up to 5 months after the last dose of atezolizumab; Note: influenza vaccination should be given during influenza season only (approximately October to March); patients must not receive live, attenuated influenza vaccine within 28 days prior to randomization or at any time during the study
  • Psychiatric illness/social situations that would limit compliance with study requirements
  • Pregnant women are excluded from this study; breastfeeding should be discontinued if the mother is treated with atezolizumab; (Note: pregnancy testing should be performed within 14 days prior to randomization according to institutional standards for women of childbearing potential)
  • Patients positive for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) are NOT excluded from this study, but HIV-positive patients must have:
  • A stable regimen of highly active anti-retroviral therapy (HAART); and
  • No requirement for concurrent antibiotics or antifungal agents for the prevention of opportunistic infections; and
  • A CD4 count above 250 cells/uL and an undetectable HIV viral load on standard PCR-based tests
  • Patients with prior allogeneic bone marrow transplantation or prior solid organ transplantation
Benefits and risks of participating
BENEFITS:

We cannot promise any benefits to you as a result of taking part in this research study.


RISKS:

The study doctor will discuss the risks associated with taking part in this research study.
Compensation
You will not be paid to take part in this research study.
Resources
Schedule
Study duration and period
You will take part in the study as long as you continue to benefit or as long as your doctors think it is safe to keep you on therapy.
Recruitment period
From March 7, 2018
Location
UC Davis Comprehensive Cancer Center
4501 X Street
Sacramento, CA 95817
Contact
Christina Devisser
Research Topic
Conditions:
  • Colorectal Adenocarcinoma
  • Mismatch Repair Deficiency
  • Stage IV Colorectal Cancer AJCC v7
  • Stage IVA Colorectal Cancer AJCC v7
  • Stage IVB Colorectal Cancer AJCC v7

Have any questions or want to learn more? Leave your contact details below and the research team will reach out to you.


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