18 to 70 years old
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Severe or symptomatic COPD, emphysema, renal, hepatic or coronary artery disease as defined by the American College of Cardiology (Cannon et al., 2001).
Esophageal pathology (diverticulum, hiatal hernia, esophageal cancer, esophageal surgery), which introduces risks associated with the placement of the esophageal Doppler.
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