"Can training in a virtual reality environment teach children with ADHD to ignore common distractors?"
8 to 13 years old
ADHD, attention problems
The purpose of this study is to test whether a new intervention can help persons with attention problems or have ADHD with significant inattention, learn to ignore distractors. Our intervention uses a virtual reality environment to repeatedly train resistance to common distractors (e.g. clock ticking or peers talking).
This study requires
If you decide to participate in this study, your child will be asked to complete about 25 virtual reality training sessions (20-30 min each) at home over 5-7 weeks. Virtual reality equipment will be provided by the research team. In addition, you will be asked to come to the MIND Insitute for 3 - 4 testing sessions (1-2 pre-, mid-, and 1 post-training), each 1-2 hours long. You may be asked to complete an additional screening visit before you can do your pre-testing and begin training. During testing sessions at the UC Davis MIND Institute, you may do some or all of the following research activities:
VIRTUAL REALITY: You will use a virtual reality headset to view a 3-D classroom and complete tasks on the blackboard. Blackboard tasks may include math tasks, memory tasks, or other simple computer games. During a task, you may see or hear other things in your virtual reality environment (e.g. clock ticking, avatar students talking) that are designed to distract you from the task. Distractors can be quiet, distant, and infrequent or loud, nearby, and very frequent. Distractors may make annoyingly loud sounds but will never be so loud that they can cause hearing damage. You will be asked about your comfort using the virtual reality headset.
VIDEO TAPING: During one of our assessments where you will complete a math task, we would like to video record you so that we may review these tapes later and measure certain types of behavior during the task. The assessment lasts 5-15 minutes. Videotapes will be viewed only by study staff who will be looking for certain types of actions and behaviors that some children do during the task.
TESTING: Participants may be asked to complete abbreviated forms of academic or IQ testing (Wechsler Intelligence Scales – WISC/WASI).
RATINGS and QUESTIONNAIRES: • Children will be asked questions about their enjoyment of the experience, comfort, and any motion sickness from the virtual reality. • Parent and children may be asked to complete a satisfaction with treatment questionnaire asking for their impressions of the virtual reality training • Parents will be asked to provide demographic information, including parent education and general socio-economic status. • Parents will be asked to complete a log of current medications and treatments and report past use of ADHD medications, if applicable. • Parents will complete rating scales that assess for inattention and/or ADHD symptoms, such as inattention and hyperactivity. Parents may answer additional questions about their child in a computerized diagnostic interview. A clinician may briefly interview parents and/or participants to independently assess functioning and potential problem areas. • Teachers may be asked to complete a short rating scale about the participant’s behaviors in the classroom up to 3 times during the study. We will only contact teachers that you list and give us permission to contact.
Who can participate?
- Significant (T score >= 60) ratings of Cognitive Problems/Inattention or DSM Inattention scale scores on the Conners' Parent or Teacher Rating Scale-3 or Parent ADHD Rating Scale-IV (ADHD-RS)
- Endorsement of 4 or more symptoms of inattention on a clinical psychiatric interview (e.g. Parent DISC, DICA, Kiddie-SADS, Mini-KID)
- Comfortable using a computer
- Full Scale IQ > 80
- Psychosis (by parent report at phone screen), significant depression, autism (15 or > on Social Communication Questionnaire (SCQ)), psychotic disorders, visual or hearing impairment or any other disorder that may interfere with task performance
- It is in the investigator's opinion that it is not in the subject's best interest to continue
- Subject is non-compliant with training schedule
- Subjects on pharmacotherapy for ADHD at the time of enrollment will be excluded from Aims 3 and 4.
- Subjects starting behavioral or psychological treatment for ADHD during the training phase of the study will be excluded
If you agree to take part in this research study, we will compensate you $25 for the in person screening and $50 for the baseline (if there are two baseline visits, it will be a total of $50 for both visits), midpoint and a posttest visit.
You will receive the compensation after the final testing session is complete. If you decide to leave the study before it is completed you will be compensated for the testing sessions that have been completed at the time of withdrawal.
Children may earn reward points for doing well on their training which they can use to get small prizes when they come for testing at the MIND Institute.
You may be asked for your social security number for payment purposes. It will not be used for any other purpose without your permission. Your completed subject compensation forms will be submitted to the UC Davis Department of Psychiatry for processing and payment.